History of magnets
How do magnets work?
Magnetic strength and measurement
Uses of magnets for common ailments
Application of magnetic therapy
Magnetic Therapy Research
Animals and Magnetic therapy
Painkillers And Their Side-Effects
How Healthy Are You?
Magnetic Wound Treatment Externally
Applied Magnetic Fields
A further effect relies on disinfecting capacity
of oxygen radicals. With an increase in oxygen partial pressure, the number of
germs in the wound will decrease considerably (Elstner, 1990).
where there is normally a good supply of oxygen and energy in the wound area,
only a comparatively smaller influence can be expected from the magnetic field
treatment on wound healing. In contrast, a greater impact can be expected where
such a supply in wound areas is critical.
(1974) reports on the healing of acid burn necrotic skin wounds of
animals. The treatment with magnetic fields of 8 x 10' A/m as compared to
controls without it, showed a better organization of collagen fibres after ten
days. The same author describes the influence of low frequency fields on the
healing of skin wounds on the back of rats (Kraus, 1984). The subcutaneous
tissue, considerably burnt by acid, was treated 8 hours daily with a magnetic
field of 6.4 x 10' A/m and at a frequency of 22 Hz (sinus) in the direction of
the longitudinal body axis. Within 21 to 26 days wounds of 12 cin 2 and 20 cm 2
closed, whereas similar wounds, not treated magnetically, showed ulcers and
scabs, even after 50 days.
As pointed out, these results could be confirmed
through clinical observations. Identical wound areas, mostly described as deep
second degree burns, were treated 6 hours daily with magnetic fields of 1.6 x
10' A/m to 2.4 x 103 A/m and at a frequency of 20 Hz. The results were compared
to those groups of patients who had similar wounds, but were not treated with
magnetic fields. In almost all cases, a faster spontaneous
epithelialization and a better scar formation was observed. These healing
processes can be summarized: The treatment with magnetic field raises the
healing capacity of complicated wounds to that of normally healing wounds
Wound dressings generally allow the application of permanent
magnets - so no power supply needed - close to the wound during the healing
process. Muhlbauer (1974) presents results of wound healing achieved by using
pairs of small permanent magnets (strontium-ferrite) put together in belt form.
Each pair was placed in such a way that the air, respectively field gaps, were
along the incision (abdominal wall of the patient). Using this "magnetic
zipper", it was possible to close the wounds well without the use of sutures. A
clearly higher scar quality fields healed without significant scar formation was
achieved when results were compared to wound closures without magnets
respectively with sutures.
The said arrangement of magnets was also used on
the edges of burn wounds. Besides this sutureless magnetic zipper, sutures were
used for other wounds for comparison purposes. In all cases the wounds treated
with magnetic fields healed without significant scar formation, whereas similar
wounds not treated with magnetic fields showed signs of keloid formation and
hypotrophy. In Muhlbauers article (1974) impressive photographs are reproduced
showing keloid formation of burn wounds on both sides of the lower jaw of a
In experiments on rabbits and guinea pigs, a sutureless
zipper with permanent magnets stuck on externally was first developed. The
incision line, treated with magnetic field, healed showing only a fine, lineal,
totally level scarline without excessive scar tissue. Histologically most
remarkable and clinically verified was the orderly growth of the collagen fibre
bundles parallel to the magnetic field, i.e. across the wound incision.
contrast, wounds not treated with magnetic fields showed a disorderly alignment
of fibres. It is remarkable that the fibroblasts reach the fibrocytes stage
earlier when the magnetic field treatment is used.
P. Kokoschinegg (1981) has
worked with magnetic plasters (Tai-ki Acudot). Here a ferrite magnet, 5 mm in
diameter and approximately 2.25 mm in height, is mounted onto a plaster 20 mm in
diameter. 3 mm above the centre the magnetic field strength is about 1.1 X 104
A/m and decreases rapidly towards the sides. A very successful scar treatment,
especially of burn scars, is pointed out and illustrated with photographs.
Kokoschinegg (1983) reports further on scar treatment using magnetic foils.
Here, too, the definite improvement of scar quality could be achieved and pain
in the affected areas could be alleviated.
Moreover, by using permanent
magnets in animal experiments, the healing process of nerve endings reconnected
without sutures was definitely improved (Muhlbauer, 1974). Axons grown
together under the influence of the magnetic field showed parallel
alignments of fibres without signs of altered growth in the area of the
incision. After three months, the anastomoses were almost invisible.
remarkably improved wound healing and scar formation fields healed without
significant scar formation achieved by placing permanent magnets in the wound
area, as mentioned by Kokoschinegg (1981, 1983) and Muhlbauer (1974) referred to
previously, resulted in this case through the influence of static magnetic
Furthermore, it is reported by W. Muhlbauer (1974) - as well as by
Kraus (1984) - of clinical studies, carried out in collaboration with Kraus and
Lang, on the influence of low frequency alternating magnetic fields in the
healing process of large wound areas caused by burns and acid burns.
wound surfaces - as also indicated by Kraus (1984) - were generally deep second
degree burns, with a poor tendency to spontaneous healing. They were treated 6
hours daily with magnetic fields from approximately 1.6 x 10' A/m to
approximately 8 X 103 A /in.
In Almost all cases, a faster epithelialization
was established (after 3 to 4 weeks) with better subsequent scar formation
fields healed without significant scar formation characterized by a high degree
of vascularization, higher elasticity and increased mechanical resistance, in
contrast to similar wound areas not treated with magnetic fields. Complicated
wounds and trophic ulcers which before resisted all types of therapy could heal
with a stable scar tissue formation when alternating magnetic fields were
applied for 4 to 8 weeks.
More recent studies made by Ieran et al. (1990) and
Stiller et al. (1992) show that magnetic field treatment significantly favors
the healing of skin ulcers of venous origin in humans.
Ieran et al. (1990)
reported on a study with 44 patients., where half of them were exposed to active
stimulators (experimental group) and the remaining to dummy stimulators (placebo
group). The stimulator used here generated a magnetic field of approx. 2.2 x 10
3 A/m at impulse frequency of 75 Hz vith an impulse width of 1.3 ms. The
treatment was scheduled to last a maximum of 90 days. The success rate was
significantly higher in the experimental group: 66.6% were healed vs. 31% in the
placebo group. Furthermore no ulcers worsened in the experimental group and only
25% of which experienced recurrence of the ulcer. Whereas four worsened in the
placebo group and 50% experienced recurrence of the ulcer.
Local application of magnetic fields can
considerably increase peripheral blood perfusion as indicated by an increase of
temperature in the treated area, which is a sign of local increase in the
oxidation process. This is a result of the higher availability of oxygen in the
tissues, caused by the tendency of oxygenated erythrocytes, having a higher
magnetic energy than in deoxygenated state, to release oxygen when a magnetic
field is applied. Better oxygen supply means better energy supply, so that a
positive influence on the wound healing process can be expected when using
The fields to be applied are relatively low, so that they can
easily be technically realised. Most effective are pulsed fields with extremely
Magnetic field treatment can be expected to be most effective
on wounds where oxygen and energy supply are critical, as in the case of ulcers.
Ardenne, M. v. (1987). Sauerstoff-Mehrschrz'tt-Therapie,
pp. 6-10. Georg Thierne Verlag,
Stuttgart, New York.Ardenne, M. v. (1989). Wo
hilft Sauerstoff-Mehrschrz*tt-Therapte?, pp. 31-36. BI Wis-
Mannheim, Wien, Ziirich.
Bergsmann, 0. (1985). Zur Frage der therapeutischen
Wirkung magnetischer Felder.
Erfrungs-Heilkunde, 34, 226-230.
N., Gill, S., Downing, M., & Malone, C. (1963). The environmental dependency
of the reaction of oxygen with hemoglobin. Archives of Biochemistry and
Biophysics, 100, 26-31.
Elstner, E. F. (1990). Der Sauerstoff.- Biochemie,
Biologie, Medizin, pp. 405-411. BI Wissenschaftsverlag, Mannheim, Wien,
Hatz, R. (1994). Grundsdtzliche Aspekte zur Physiologie der
Wundheilung, Status quo und Perspektiven in der Wundbehandlung, pp. 9-20. Pharma
Trend Verlag, Bachern (W6rthsee).
Ieran, M., Zaffuto, S., Bagnacani, M.,
Annovi, M., Moratti, A., & Cadossi, R. (1990). Effect of low frequency
pulsing electromagnetic fields on skin ulcers of venous origin in humans:
double-blind study. J. Orthopaed. Res., 8, 276-282.
Magnetic Substances and
Externally Applied FieldsKokoschinegg, P. (1981). Uber die Wirksamkeit
statischer, magnetischer Felder(Tai-ki Acudor) auf den Menschen. Dtsch. Zschr.
Akup., 6, 135-141.
Kokoschinegg, P. (1983). In 51"' Symposium of Medical
Society of Empiric Therapeutics, Baden-Baden, Germany, volume IBS-Report No.
12/82/E/Rev. 3, The Application of Alternating Magnetic Fields in Medicine.
Institute for Biophysics and Ray-Research, Vienna.
Kraus, W. (1974). Zur
Biophysik der Knochenbruch- u. Wundheilung durch funktionelle elektrische und
magnetische Potentiale. Langenbecks Arch. Chir., 337, 625-630.
(1984). Magnetfeldtherapie und magnetisch induzierte Elektrostimulation in der
Orthopddie. Orthopddle, 13, 78-92.
Miihlbauer, W. (1974). Der Einfluss
magnetischer Felder auf die Wundheilung. Langenbecks Arch. Chir., 3377
Sternme, 0. (1992). Physiologie der Magn ctfe ldbeh and lung, 5. Dr.
Otto Stemme Verlag, Miinchen.
Stiller, M. J., Pak, G. H., Shupack, J. L.,
Thaler, S., Kenny, C., & Jondreau., L. (1992). A portable pulsed
electromagnetic field (PEMF) device to enhance healing of recalcitrant veneous
ulcers: A double-blind, pl aceb o-con trolled clinical trial. Brit. J.
Dermatol., 127, 147-154.
Warrike, U. (1980). Grundlagen zu magnetisch
induzierten physiologischen Effekten. Therapiewoche, 30,
Magnet therapy products, magnetic bracelets for natural pain relief of arthritis, back pain and fibromyalgia.
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